Q1 Which principle dictates that research participants should be informed about the nature of the study and its potential risks and benefits?
A) Informed Consent
Answer: A) Informed Consent
Explanation: Informed consent is a fundamental ethical principle in research, which requires that participants are fully informed about the study they are participating in and agree to it voluntarily.
Q2 Which of the following is NOT considered a form of research misconduct?
C) Peer Review
Answer: C) Peer Review
Explanation: Peer review is a part of the research process that involves evaluation by other experts in the field, not a form of misconduct. Plagiarism, fabrication, and falsification are all forms of research misconduct.
Q3 What is the primary purpose of an Institutional Review Board (IRB)?
A) To fund research projects
B) To publish research findings
C) To protect the rights and welfare of research subjects
D) To ensure the research is completed on time
Answer: C) To protect the rights and welfare of research subjects
Explanation: An IRB is a committee that has been formally designated to approve, monitor, and review biomedical and behavioral research involving humans to protect the rights and welfare of the research subjects.
Q4 Which ethical principle refers to the obligation to do no harm?
D) Respect for Persons
Answer: C) Nonmaleficence
Explanation: Nonmaleficence is an ethical principle that means “do no harm,” guiding researchers to avoid causing harm to participants.
Q5 If a researcher uses data from a participant without their consent, which ethical principle is being violated?
C) Respect for Persons
Answer: C) Respect for Persons
Explanation: Respect for persons involves treating individuals as autonomous agents and protecting those with diminished autonomy. Using data without consent is a violation of this principle.
Q6 The principle of beneficence requires that:
A) Researchers treat participants fairly and equitably.
B) Researchers maximize possible benefits and minimize possible harms.
C) Participants receive compensation for their involvement.
D) The confidentiality of participant information is maintained.
Answer: B) Researchers maximize possible benefits and minimize possible harms.
Explanation: Beneficence is an ethical principle ensuring that researchers must take steps to maximize the benefits of research and minimize potential harm to participants.
Q6 Which statement is true regarding the confidentiality of participant information?
A) It is optional based on the type of research.
B) It can be broken if the findings are significant.
C) It must be maintained, unless the participant gives permission to do otherwise.
D) It is less important than the outcomes of the research.
Answer: C) It must be maintained, unless the participant gives permission to do otherwise.
Explanation: Confidentiality is a critical aspect of research ethics, requiring that information about research participants be kept private unless they have explicitly given permission to share it.
Q7 The principle of justice in research ethics primarily ensures that:
A) Participants are treated with respect and dignity.
B) The benefits and burdens of research are distributed fairly.
C) Participants have autonomy over whether to participate.
D) Research contributes to the good of society.
Answer: B) The benefits and burdens of research are distributed fairly.
Explanation: The principle of justice pertains to fairness in the distribution of the benefits and burdens of research. It seeks to prevent exploitation of vulnerable populations and ensure equitable access to research benefits.
Q8 What is the main role of ethical guidelines in research?
A) To provide a checklist for publishing research
B) To ensure the scientific validity of the research
C) To govern the conduct of researchers and protect research participants
D) To secure funding for research projects
Answer: C) To govern the conduct of researchers and protect research participants
Explanation: Ethical guidelines are in place to ensure that researchers conduct their work responsibly and with a commitment to protecting research participants from harm.
Q9 Which of the following would be considered a breach of research ethics?
A) Acknowledging all contributors to the research
B) Sharing data with other researchers for verification
C) Changing the hypothesis after knowing the outcome of the study
D) Seeking consent from participants before the study
Answer: C) Changing the hypothesis after knowing the outcome of the study
Explanation: Changing the hypothesis after knowing
Q10 Voluntary participation in research is a fundamental right. This is an application of which ethical principle?
Answer: B) Autonomy
Explanation: Autonomy refers to the right of an individual to make an informed, uncoerced decision about participation in research. This principle supports voluntary participation.
Q11 What does the term “anonymity” refer to in the context of research ethics?
A) Participants are not required to reveal personal information.
B) Participants’ identities are unknown even to the researchers.
C) Participants’ data can be shared publicly if it is important for science.
D) Researchers can identify participants but promise not to disclose their identities.
Answer: B) Participants’ identities are unknown even to the researchers.
Explanation: Anonymity in research means that the participants remain anonymous throughout the study and the researchers do not know the identities of the participants.
Q12 The Belmont Report outlines three basic ethical principles that are key to the conduct of research involving human subjects. Which of the following is NOT one of those principles?
A) Respect for Persons
Answer: C) Integrity
Explanation: The Belmont Report specifically identifies respect for persons, beneficence, and justice as its three basic ethical principles. Integrity is important in research but not one of the three principles outlined in the Belmont Report.
Q13 In research, the principle of “respect for persons” entails:
A) Treating participants as capable of making their own decisions.
B) Ensuring that research is fair and equitable.
C) Protecting the confidentiality and privacy of participants.
D) Compensating participants for their time.
Answer: A) Treating participants as capable of making their own decisions.
Explanation: Respect for persons involves acknowledging the autonomy and the decision-making capabilities of participants. It also involves providing extra protection for those with diminished autonomy.
Q14 Which of the following best describes the concept of “informed consent” in research?
A) Participants are informed of the results after the study is completed.
B) Participants are informed about the risks and benefits before deciding to participate.
C) Consent is assumed if a participant does not explicitly say no.
D) Consent is informed by the potential financial benefits of the research.
Answer: B) Participants are informed about the risks and benefits before deciding to participate.
Explanation: Informed consent is the process through which researchers communicate with potential participants about what the study involves, including its risks and benefits, so that individuals can make an informed decision about their participation.
Q15 What is the main ethical issue with “deception” in research?
A) It may affect the validity of the research results.
B) It can lead to legal consequences for the researchers.
C) It violates the principle of informed consent.
D) It can cause psychological harm to the researchers.
Answer: C) It violates the principle of informed consent.
Explanation: Deception in research involves withholding information about the true nature of the study or misleading participants, which violates the principle of informed consent. Participants cannot make an informed decision if they are deceived.
Q16 Which of the following is a requirement for ethical publication of research findings?
A) Including as many co-authors as possible
B) Publishing results that only support the hypothesis
C) Giving proper credit to those who contributed to the work
D) Securing patents before publication
Answer: C) Giving proper credit to those who contributed to the work
Explanation: Ethical publication requires that credit is appropriately assigned to all individuals who have made a significant contribution to the research and its findings.
Q17 When researchers collect sensitive information, they are ethically obligated to:
A) Share the information with the public to advance science.
B) Store the information in a publicly accessible database.
C) Ensure the information is kept confidential and secure.
D) Use the information to further their own careers.
Answer: C) Ensure the information is kept confidential and secure.
Explanation: Researchers have a duty to protect sensitive information gathered during their study and to ensure that such information is kept confidential and stored securely.
Q18 Dual-use research refers to research that:
A) Can be used for both scientific and commercial purposes.
B) Has the potential to be used for both beneficial and harmful purposes.
C) Involves two different research methods.
D) Is conducted in two different countries.
Answer: B) Has the potential to be used for both beneficial and harmful purposes.
Explanation: Dual-use research involves studies that, while intended for beneficial purposes, may inadvertently provide knowledge, information, products, or technologies that could be used in a way that causes harm.
Q19 The Nuremberg Code was established in response to:
A) The need for international research collaboration.
B) Ethical violations in research during World War II.
C) The invention of the Internet and digital data collection.
D) The rise of biotechnology and genomics.
Answer: B) Ethical violations in research during World War II.
Explanation: The Nuremberg Code was established after World War II, in response to the unethical medical experiments conducted during the war, and it laid down a set of principles for ethical conduct in human experimentation.