Q1 Which of the following is a threat to internal validity due to events occurring between the first and second measurements in an experiment?

a) Maturation

b) Testing effect

c) History

d) Instrumentation

Answer: c) History

Explanation: The history threat to internal validity refers to external events that occur between measurements that might influence the dependent variable.


Q2 In a factorial design experiment, if there are two independent variables, each with three levels, how many conditions or treatments are there in total?

a) 3

b) 6

c) 9

d) 12

Answer: c) 9

Explanation: In a factorial design, the number of conditions is the product of the levels of each independent variable. Here, it’s 3 (from the first IV) multiplied by 3 (from the second IV) = 9.


Q3 What type of research design begins with the observation of an effect and then works backward to suggest possible causes?

a) Experimental design

b) Ex post facto design

c) Longitudinal design

d) Pre-experimental design

Answer: b) Ex post facto design

Explanation: Ex post facto (or “after the fact”) design begins with the consequences and retrospectively looks for possible causes.


Q4 Which of the following sampling techniques gives every possible combination of units from the population an equal chance of being selected?

a) Purposive sampling

b) Cluster sampling

c) Systematic sampling

d) Simple random sampling

Answer: d) Simple random sampling

Explanation: Simple random sampling ensures that every possible sample of a given size has an equal chance of being selected from the population.


Q5 Which validity ensures that the measures used in a study measure the concepts they’re supposed to measure?

a) External validity

b) Construct validity

c) Face validity

d) Criterion validity

Answer: b) Construct validity

Explanation: Construct validity pertains to the accuracy with which a test or tool measures the intended construct.


Q6 What is it called when participants’ behavior is influenced by their knowledge that they are being observed?

a) Social desirability bias

b) Hawthorne effect

c) Confirmation bias

d) Observer bias

Answer: b) Hawthorne effect

Explanation: The Hawthorne effect describes the phenomenon where individuals modify their behavior in response to their awareness of being observed.


Q7 Which type of scale allows for the ranking of items, provides the order of the items, but doesn’t provide information on the difference between the items?

a) Ratio scale

b) Interval scale

c) Nominal scale

d) Ordinal scale

Answer: d) Ordinal scale

Explanation: An ordinal scale allows items to be ranked, indicating their order, but it doesn’t specify the magnitude of the difference between them.


Q8 Which statistical test is used to compare means from two different conditions or groups when the data are not normally distributed?

a) T-test


c) Chi-square

d) Mann-Whitney U test

Answer: d) Mann-Whitney U test

Explanation: The Mann-Whitney U test is a non-parametric statistical test that compares two unpaired groups when the data are not normally distributed.

Q9 In a research setting, the placebo effect primarily involves:

a) The treatment’s actual impact on participants.

b) Participants’ beliefs influencing their response to a treatment.

c) The observer’s beliefs influencing their assessment of outcomes.

d) A medication or treatment having no effect whatsoever.

Answer: b) Participants’ beliefs influencing their response to a treatment.

Explanation: The placebo effect involves participants experiencing changes in their condition due to their beliefs or expectations about a treatment, not because of the treatment itself.


Q10 Which type of reliability refers to the degree of consistency between multiple raters or judges?

a) Test-retest reliability

b) Parallel forms reliability

c) Internal consistency reliability

d) Inter-rater reliability

Answer: d) Inter-rater reliability

Explanation: Inter-rater reliability assesses the degree to which different raters or judges provide consistent estimates of the same phenomenon.

Q11 Which research method involves an in-depth exploration of a specific real-life setting or event?

a) Experimental

b) Survey

c) Ethnography

d) Case Study

Answer: d) Case Study

Explanation: A case study offers a detailed and intensive analysis of a specific case, whether it’s an organization, person, event, or a particular phenomenon.


Q12 Which of the following is NOT a primary type of validity in research?

a) Predictive validity

b) Construct validity

c) Surface validity

d) Content validity

Answer: c) Surface validity

Explanation: Surface validity isn’t a standard type of validity. Predictive, construct, and content validity are well-recognized types.


Q13 In which type of sampling does every member of the population have an equal chance of being selected?

a) Stratified sampling

b) Purposive sampling

c) Simple random sampling

d) Snowball sampling

Answer: c) Simple random sampling

Explanation: Simple random sampling is a method where every individual in the population has an equal chance of being chosen.


Q14 Which research design involves examining the same group of individuals over multiple points in time?

a) Cross-sectional design

b) Cohort design

c) Longitudinal design

d) Experimental design

Answer: c) Longitudinal design

Explanation: Longitudinal design involves studying the same group of individuals at several different points in time to observe changes.


Q15 Which type of research primarily aims to test theories and hypotheses?

a) Descriptive research

b) Exploratory research

c) Experimental research

d) Grounded theory

Answer: c) Experimental research

Explanation: Experimental research is primarily concerned with testing hypotheses and establishing cause-and-effect relationships, often through controlled experiments.


Q16 Which of the following is NOT typically a characteristic of qualitative research?

a) Use of open-ended questions

b) In-depth understanding of phenomena

c) Statistical analysis

d) Subjective interpretation

Answer: c) Statistical analysis

Explanation: Qualitative research primarilya focuses on in-depth understanding, using open-ended questions and often involves subjective interpretation. Statistical analysis is more characteristic of quantitative research.