Q1 Which method uses existing records or archival data for research purposes?

a) Survey research

b) Archival research

c) Experimental research

d) Ethnographic research

Answer: b) Archival research

Explanation: Archival research involves studying existing records or archival data, like historical documents, to draw conclusions.


Q2 In research, a hypothesis that posits no effect or no relationship between variables is called what?

a) Experimental hypothesis

b) Alternative hypothesis

c) Null hypothesis

d) Directional hypothesis


Answer: c) Null hypothesis

Explanation: The null hypothesis often denoted as asserts that there is no effect or relationship between the variables being studied.


Q2 Which of the following research approaches is focused on generating a theory from the data collected?

a) Descriptive research

b) Experimental research

c) Grounded theory

d) Ethnography


Answer: c) Grounded theory

Explanation: Grounded theory aims to derive a theory from the data itself, often through iterative processes of data collection and analysis.


Q3 Which type of research design uses both quantitative and qualitative methods?

a) Experimental design

b) Ethnographic design

c) Mixed methods design

d) Case study design


Answer: c) Mixed methods design

Explanation: A mixed methods design combines both quantitative and qualitative research methods to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the research problem.

Q4 Which of the following is NOT a type of research method?

a) Descriptive

b) Experimental

c) Qualitative

d) Summative


Answer: d) Summative

Explanation: Summative is a type of assessment, not a research method. Descriptive, Experimental, and Qualitative are all established research methods.

Q5 In which type of research is the researcher most involved, often participating in the activities being studied?

a) Case Study

b) Survey

c) Experimental

d) Participant Observation


Answer: d) Participant Observation

Explanation: Participant observation involves the researcher immersing themselves in the environment they’re studying, often taking an active role in it.

Q6 Which research method is particularly useful for exploring new or complex topics?

a) Experimental

b) Case Study

c) Survey

d) Correlational


Answer: b) Case Study

Explanation: Case studies offer in-depth investigations into single instances, making them valuable for understanding intricate details of new or complex subjects.


Q7 Which of the following methods primarily uses numerical data to draw conclusions?

a) Experimental

b) Ethnographic

c) Narrative

d) Historical

Answer: a) Experimental

Explanation: Experimental research often involves manipulating variables and collecting quantitative data, which is then analyzed statistically.


Q8 What does a correlational study primarily investigate?

a) Cause and effect relationship

b) Deep understanding of a single event

c) Relationship between two or more variables

d) Historical progression of an event


Answer: c) Relationship between two or more variables

Explanation: Correlational studies aim to determine the extent to which two (or more) variables change together.


Q9 Which research method is most appropriate when wanting to understand the perspective and lived experiences of participants?

a) Experimental

b) Survey

c) Qualitative

d) Quantitative


Answer: c) Qualitative

Explanation: Qualitative research aims to gain a deep understanding of participants’ perspectives and lived experiences, often through methods like interviews and focus groups.


Q10 In an experimental design, what term is used for the variable that is manipulated by the researcher?

a) Control variable

b) Dependent variable

c) Independent variable

d) Confounding variable


Answer: c) Independent variable

Explanation: In experimental designs, the independent variable is the one that is manipulated to observe its effect on another variable.


Q11 Which of the following is a common method for collecting data in qualitative research?

a) Surveys with closed-ended questions

b) Laboratory experiments

c) Focus groups

d) Large-scale statistical analyses


Answer: c) Focus groups

Explanation: Focus groups involve guided group discussions and are commonly used in qualitative research to gather in-depth insights from participants.


Q12 What is the primary difference between cross-sectional and longitudinal research?

a) The sample size

b) The research question

c) The variables studied

d) The time frame


Answer: d) The time frame

Explanation: Cross-sectional research examines data from a group at one specific point in time, while longitudinal research studies the same group over an extended period.


Q13 Which of the following best describes a double-blind experiment?

a) Both the participants and the experimenter are unaware of who receives the treatment.

b) Both the participants and the experimenter are aware of who receives the treatment.

c) Only the participants are unaware of who receives the treatment.

d) Only the experimenter is unaware of who receives the treatment.


Answer: a) Both the participants and the experimenter are unaware of who receives the treatment.

Explanation: In a double-blind experiment, both the participants and the experimenter are kept in the dark about the treatment allocations. This minimizes the chance of bias affecting the results.