What is Counselling?

  • Counselling is a personal or individual process.
  • Counselling is a series of direct contact with the individual which aims to offer him assistance in changing his attitude and behaviour.
  • It is always personal it cannot be performed with a group.
  • Guidance is a major term in which counselling is included.

Counselling Is Problem Oriented The Aim Of Counsellor Is To Find Out Problems Which Are Effecting Counselee Behaviour.

why we need counselling?

We may need counselling for the any of the following problems facing in our lives

  • Anxiety Counselling
  • Counselling for Depression
  • Body Image Counselling
  • Eating Disorders Counselling
  • Family Counselling
  • Parenting Counselling
  • Life Transitions Counselling


  • Counselling deals with the problem of abnormal behaviour and emotional problem.
  • Counselling is given by trained person known as counsellor.
  • Counselling implies a personal relationship between two individuals.
  • Counselling is structured.
  • Counselling is permissive.
  • Counselling is dynamic.
  • The interview is the basic technique for counselling process .
  • Group counselling is anomaly.


  • Counselling is aimed at the progressive development of the individual to solve problem.
  • Counselling releases the feeling of inferiority and compulsion.
  • The purpose of counselling is to make counselee cheerful to gain confidence for social responsibility


There are mainly 3 types of counselling – Directive , Non-directive and Eclectic Counselling. which we will discuss here in detail-


  • It is also known as perspective, informative or counsellor centred counselling. 
  • E.G. Williamson favours directive counselling.

Characteristics Of Directive Counselling

  • Councillor plays a major role in this process
  • Counsellor gives advice to the student
  • Counsellor leads to the situation
  • Counsellor talks most of the time
  • The problem and not the individual is the focus
  • The function of student is to co-operate with counsellor in the whole process
  • He works under counsellor not with him
  • Counsellor is authoritative person who gives judgement
  • Directive counselling gives more importance to intellectual rather than to emotional aspect of individuals personality

6 Steps Of Directive Counselling By Williamson

  1. Analysis Of The Problem
  2. Synthesis Of The Problem
  3. Diagnosis Of The Problem
  4. Prognosis Or Predicting Future Development Of The Students Problem
  5. Counselling And Treatment
  6. Follow Up And Evaluation

Non Directive Counselling

  • It is also known as permissive counselling, client oriented counselling or counselee oriented counselling.
  • Carl Roger is the leading supporter of this type of counselling.

Characteristics Of Non Directive Counselling

  • Non directive counselling is opposite to the directive counselling.
  • In this counselee / student plays a major role.
  • Counsellor seats silently while counselee speaks freely about the problem.
  • Counsellor passes occasional remarks.
  • Counsellor asks few questions.
  • Counsellor helps the pupil to think out the solution of the problem himself and this is the real purpose of counselling.

Steps Followed In Non Directive Counselling Suggested By Rogers

  • The individual come for the help.
  • The helping situation is usually defined.
  • The counsellor encourages the individual for free expression of his feelings.
  • The counsellor recognises and classify the negative and positive feelings of the client.
  • This counselling develops the insight in the client and the counsellor continues to reflect and clarify this new feeling and make understanding of the problem.
  • This develops a feeling of increased independence.
  • After watching the sign counsellor or client may suggest termination.

Eclectic counselling

  • Eclectic counselling is the combination and synthesis of the directive and non directive counselling.
  • Counsellor and the counselee both are active and cooperative
  • Both talk turn-by-turn and problem is solved jointly
  • It is the best type of counselling.
  • FC Thorne favours the eclectic approach of counselling.