Q1 In research, when a hypothesis is stated in negative terms, it is referred to as:

a) Alternative hypothesis

b) Research hypothesis

c) Null hypothesis

d) Directional hypothesis

Answer: c) Null hypothesis

Explanation: The null hypothesis typically states that there is no effect or no difference, and it’s often the hypothesis that a researcher aims to reject.


Q2 Which term refers to the consistency and repeatability of a measurement?

a) Validity

b) Objectivity

c) Reliability

d) Verifiability

Answer: c) Reliability

Explanation: Reliability concerns the consistency of a measurement. If the same measurement is repeated and produces the same results, it’s considered reliable.


Q3 Which type of research provides a holistic understanding of a complex issue without a structured methodology?

a) Quantitative research

b) Experimental research

c) Qualitative research

d) Analytical research

Answer: c) Qualitative research

Explanation: Qualitative research seeks to understand the depth, context, and reasons behind phenomena without necessarily adhering to structured or statistical methodologies.


Q4 When a researcher collects data on a group to describe or interpret the current group’s characteristics, it is called:

a) Ex post facto research

b) Survey research

c) Descriptive research

d) Grounded theory research

Answer: c) Descriptive research

Explanation: Descriptive research aims to describe the characteristics of an individual or group, often through observational methods.


Q5 Which of the following best describes the dependent variable?

a) It is manipulated to observe its effect on another variable

b) It is the outcome or response that the researcher wants to predict or explain

c) It remains constant throughout the experiment

d) It provides a basis for experimental prediction

Answer: b) It is the outcome or response that the researcher wants to predict or explain

Explanation: The dependent variable is the one being tested or measured in an experiment, while the independent variable is manipulated to see its effect on the dependent variable.


Q6 Which is not an ethical principle of research?

a) Plagiarism

b) Informed consent

c) Confidentiality

d) Protection from harm

Answer: a) Plagiarism

Explanation: Plagiarism is considered an unethical act in research. The other options are principles to be followed to ensure ethical conduct.


Q7 Which sampling method involves selecting the most accessible members of the population?

a) Simple random sampling

b) Cluster sampling

c) Convenience sampling

d) Stratified sampling

Answer: c) Convenience sampling

Explanation: Convenience sampling involves choosing individuals who are easiest to reach or most readily available.


Q8 In which research method is the researcher most likely to become a part of the community being studied?

a) Case study

b) Survey

c) Ethnography

d) Experimental research

Answer: c) Ethnography

Explanation: Ethnography often involves the researcher immersing themselves in the culture or community they are studying, sometimes even living with them for extended periods.


Q9 When research is conducted by a team of experienced researchers and is subjected to scrutiny at every stage, it is termed as:

a) Action research

b) Collaborative research

c) Team research

d) Empirical research

Answer: b) Collaborative research

Explanation: Collaborative research involves a team of researchers working together, often bringing varied expertise to the table, and typically involves rigorous scrutiny at each step by multiple team members.


Q10 Which of the following refers to an in-depth study of one individual, group, or event?

a) Survey

b) Case study

c) Experiment

d) Grounded theory

Answer: b) Case study

Explanation: A case study provides an in-depth, multifaceted understanding of a complex issue in its real-life context.